As sea levels rise, salt water is poisoning trees. These dead trees release carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide, contributing to greenhouse gas emissions. These “tree farts” are a more recently recognized source of these fumes, so emissions from these trees were not often included in calculations.

Most fires die out as winter begins, with the cold and snow. But “zombie fires” hibernate underground, only to return in the spring. They smolder in the rich peat. They re-emerge, causing unexpected fire damage as there was no new cause and they begin the burn before the traditional fire season.

Europa, one of Jupiter’s moons, is an ice moon. An icy crust covers a vast ocean. Underneath the ocean, there is a rocky surface. Despite the chilly surface, this rocky ocean bottom may actually be more molten than originally believed. The Europa Clipper should be heading there to discover more in 2024.

Spring and summer is the perfect time to get out into the soil and dig. If you are curious about your soil quality, you could go get some soil testing kits, but you can also use your senses. Smell the fresh, sweet earth. If you smell rotten or sour, its ammonia present in the soil. Touch the soil. If it doesn’t crumble, it might be too compacted for the soil to absorb water the way the it should. How’s the texture? It might need more compost if it feels sandy or sticky. Look for a dark color in the soil.